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abp138在线-高考英语阅读理解间接信息题解题技巧,许多老师都给学生用,重点

2020-01-08 14:57:53   阅读:601

abp138在线-高考英语阅读理解间接信息题解题技巧,许多老师都给学生用,重点

abp138在线,理解文中具体信息

——间接信息题

一、间接信息题解题技巧

间接信息题考查的是考生理解和获取隐含在词语之间的复杂信息的能力。做这类题时,首先要理解题目的命题点,然后再去解题。

二、间接信息题命题点的特征

1. 命题点是原文某一直接信息的转述。题干的中心词不是原文词语,而是原文某一信息的间接表达。解答这一类题目的关键是准确理解题干的意思,然后在文中找出与题干中心意思一致的信息。

2. 命题点是直接信息背后隐含的内容。考生要立足直接信息,准确理解未直接表达的间接信息。解答这一类题目时,要依据若干具体的直接信息进行比较、归纳和概括,有时还要进行简单推理,由直接推出间接,由已知推出未知。

三、真题分析

以下内容均选编自高考真题,我们将结合上面提到的解题技巧对各题进行分析解答。

san francisco fire engine tours

san francisco winery tour

running: february 1st through april 30th

this delicious tour goes through the city on its way to treasure island where we will stop at the famous winery sf. here you can enjoy 4 pours of some of the best wine san francisco has to offer. (included in ticket price)

departing from the cannery: tour times upon request

duration (时长): 2 hours

price: $90

back to the fifties tour

running: august 16th through august 31st

this tour transports you back in time to one of san francisco's most fantastic periods, the 1950s! enjoy fun history as we take you through san francisco for a free taste of ice cream.

departing from the cannery: 5:00 pm and 7:30 pm

duration: 2 hours

price: $90

spooky halloween tour

running: october 10th through october 31st

join us for a ride through the historical presidio district. authentic fire gear (服装) is provided for your warmth as our entertainers take you to some of the most thrilling parts of san francisco.

departing from the cannery: 6:30 pm and 8:30 pm

duration: 1 hour and 30 minutes

price: available upon request

holiday lights tour

running: december 6th through december 23rd

this attractive tour takes you to some of san francisco's most cheerful holiday scenes. authentic fire gear is provided for your warmth as you get into the holiday spirit.

departing from the cannery: 7:00 pm and 9:00 pm.

duration: 1 hour and 30 minutes

advance reservations required.

1. which of the tours is available in march?

a. san francisco winery tour.

b. back to the fifties tour.

c. spooky halloween tour.

d. holiday lights tour.

【分析】本文是一篇应用文。文章介绍了美国旧金山的四条旅游路线。

解答本题时,首先需要知道题干中available(可得到的)的意思,然后再根据第一个小标题san francisco winery tour下的february 1st through april 30th可知,此项活动从2月1日持续到4月30日,所以如果3月份出游,要选择san francisco winery tour,故选a项。

hollywood's theory that machines with evil (邪恶的) minds will drive armies of killer robots is just silly. the real problem relates to the possibility that artificial intelligence (ai) may become extremely good at achieving something other than what we really want. in 1960 a well-known mathematician norbert wiener, who founded the field of cybernetics (控制论), put it this way: "if we use, to achieve our purposes, a mechanical agency with whose operation we cannot effectively interfere (干预), we had better be quite sure that the purpose put into the machine is the purpose which we really desire."

a machine with a specific purpose has another quality, one that we usually associate with living things: a wish to preserve its own existence. for the machine, this quality is not in-born, nor is it something introduced by humans; it is a logical consequence of the simple fact that the machine cannot achieve its original purpose if it is dead. so if we send out a robot with the single instruction of fetching coffee, it will have a strong desire to secure success by disabling its own off switch or even killing anyone who might interfere with its task. if we are not careful, then, we could face a kind of global chess match against very determined, super intelligent machines whose objectives conflict with our own, with the real world as the chessboard.

the possibility of entering into and losing such a match should concentrate the minds of computer scientists. some researchers argue that we can seal the machines inside a kind of firewall, using them to answer difficult questions but never allowing them to affect the real world. unfortunately, that plan seems unlikely to work: we have yet to invent a firewall that is secure against ordinary humans, let alone super intelligent machines.

solving the safety problem well enough to move forward in ai seems to be possible but not easy. there are probably decades in which to plan for the arrival of super intelligent machines. but the problem should not be dismissed out of hand, as it has been by some ai researchers. some argue that humans and machines can coexist as long as they work in teams — yet that is not possible unless machines share the goals of humans. others say we can just "switch them off" as if super intelligent machines are too stupid to think of that possibility. still others think that super intelligent ai will never happen. on september 11, 1933, famous physicist ernest rutherford stated, with confidence, "anyone who expects a source of power in the transformation of these atoms is talking moonshine." however, on september 12, 1933, physicist leo szilard invented the neutron-induced (中子诱导) nuclear chain reaction.

2. paragraph 1 mainly tells us that artificial intelligence may _____.

a. run out of human control

b. satisfy human's real desires

c. command armies of killer robots

d. work faster than a mathematician

3. machines with specific purposes are associated with living things partly because they might be able to _____.

a. prevent themselves from being destroyed

b. achieve their original goals independently

c. do anything successfully with given orders

d. beat humans in international chess matches

4. according to some researchers, we can use firewalls to _____.

a. help super intelligent machines work better

b. be secure against evil human beings

c. keep machines from being harmed

d. avoid robots' affecting the world

【分析】本文是一篇议论文。文章讨论了人工智能随着科技的发展可能超出人类的控制以及人类应如何应对此类安全问题。

2. 由第一段中的artificial intelligence (ai) may become extremely good at achieving something other than what we really want(人工智能可能会变得极度善于达成某事而不是我们真正想要的那样)可知,人工智能可能会超出人类的控制,故选a项。

3. 由题干中的machines with specific purposes可定位到第二段第一句a machine with a specific purpose has another quality, one that we usually associate with living things: a wish to preserve its own existence,由此可知,机器人要保证自己的存在,故选a项“避免它们自己被消灭掉”。

4. 由第三段中的some researchers argue that we can seal the machines inside a kind of firewall, using them to answer difficult questions but never allowing them to affect the real world可知,一些研究者认为,我们可以用防火墙让机器人回答难题,但从不允许它们影响真实的世界,故选d项“避免机器人影响世界”。

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